Background: Nicotine absorbed by the skin and also by the digestive, respiratory and excretory systems is one of the most known toxins found in tobacco. ‪This work reviews available literature on the influence of nicotine on human health, and in particular on the oral cavity. Material/Methods: ‪A review of literature related to the topic of the paper. Results: Numerous studies indicate that nicotine adversely affects human health. ‪It exerts a negative effect at the cellular level by modifying metabolism, and disturbs the interactions between tissues, which strongly promotes the formation of cancer-like changes. Nicotine causes numerous pathologies in the respiratory, immune, and cardiovascular systems leading to a number of metabolic disorders. Conclusions: The intake of nicotine contained in tobacco products has a particularly negative effect on the oral cavity. It accelerates periodontitis, with weaker clinical symptoms associated with resistance to conventional treatment. ‪In addition, nicotine changes the oral cavity microflora, increasing the amount of harmful bacteria and pathogenic fungi.



Author ORCID Identifier

Grzegorz Trybek https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3900-4901; Anna Grzywacz https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2633-520X