Introduction. The training of candidates for officers-commanders is an important part of the training activities of the Polish Armed Forces. Currently, the basic path of obtaining this group of officers for the Polish Armed Forces is the education of graduates of secondary schools. The aim of the study is to evaluate the differentiation of the physical fitness level of cadets of the Military University of Land Forces depending on the back pain location. Material and methods. The research material was collected as a result of tests conducted among cadets of the Military University of Land Forces in Wroclaw in the years 2015–2018. Their cardiorespiratory endurance, functional strength, running speed and agility as well as body balance were determined. In addition, spirometric measurements and a survey were conducted. Results. The results obtained in the three-year study period indicate statistically significant differences in the level of only a small number of functional features of the selected groups of men depending on the location of back pain. Significant differences between the separate groups of cadets occurred in the cardiorespiratory endurance level, the forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the forced vital capacity in test I, the level of running speed and agility in test II as well as the forced expiratory volume in 1 second in test III. Conclusions. The pain in the lower back was not a factor significantly differentiating the somatic structure of the cadets. The location of the lower back pain syndromes also did not differentiate most of the cadets’ functional abilities. The three-year study period saw favorable changes in the somatic structure and physical fitness of the examined men.