Background: ‪Literature reports indicate changes in the expression of genes encoding proinflammatory factors are observed as a result of physical exercise. The stress changes caused by high-intensity loads and adaptive changes induced by the planned long-term training are less studied. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of intense anaerobic effort in people adapted to regular trainings and in non-trained persons on the expression levels of the TNFA gene. Material and methods: ‪50 experienced soccer players and 50 non-trained participants were recruited for the study. Anaerobic capacity was measured by means of the Wingate Anaerobic Test. To evaluate the expression of TNFA gene, a QRT-PCR was applied. Results: ‪A comparison of the TNFA expression profiles between well-trained athletes and non-trained controls revealed that transcript levels were higher in non-trained participants when compared with soccer players in all the studied time points, with the exception of the second post-test; however, this difference was the only one that was statistically insignificant. Conclusions: The TNFA mRNA expression characteristic described in our study indicated a significant downregulation of the TNFA expression observed in the course of time in experienced athletes reflecting molecular adaptation to physical effort caused by long-term training regime.



Author ORCID Identifier

Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4587-2411; Jan Mieszkowski https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6753-5139; Andrzej Kochanowicz https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5104-827X; Pawel Cieszczyk https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7735-7580; Marek Sawczuk https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5730-5249