Background: Due to the location of pelvic floor muscles, training with biofeedback for this muscle group is encouraged. The aim of this study was to characterize the use patterns of various biofeedback techniques in pelvic floor muscle training in healthy pregnant women. Material and Methods: It was a narrative review study using MEDLINE database and the following keywords: ‘pelvic floor’, ‘pregnancy’ and ‘biofeedback’. For the analysis we included 8 studies meeting the criteria of being experimental trials in healthy pregnant women and including the characteristics of biofeedback techniques used in pelvic floor muscle training. Results: The most commonly used technique of biofeedback was palpation (in 4 out of 8 studies). Other techniques used a perineometer, ultrasonography, electromyography or electrostimulation. The time span between pre- and post-assessment was 27 ± 21 (M ± SD) weeks and the number of biofeedback sessions varied from 1 to 12 during the intervention. Conclusions: Because of different analyzed pelvic floor parameters and patterns of biofeedback applications, it was impossible to compare them. There are no clear guidelines for the use of biofeedback in pelvic floor muscle training.



Author ORCID Identifier

Anna Szumilewicz https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3777-5697