Background. Rituals and superstitions are also present in sport, as a part of sport competition [1]. Rituals, usually conceived as superstitions, have survived among people. They comprise magical thinking, belief in specific sayings, ritualized behavior, specific interpretation of events [2]. They are practiced to reduce anxiety. The purpose of the study was to identify the most common pre-competitive superstition rituals among Polish and Ukrainian football players and establish the relationship between superstitions and anxiety. Material and Methods: Participants were 100 Polish and 50 Ukrainian adolescent football players. The Rituals in Sport and the Sport Anxiety Scale were used. Results: The results have shown that most common rituals used by football players are superstitions and elements of pre-performance routine. Athletes used religious and personal rituals to increase their self-confidence. Some respondents exhibit ritualized behavior which might be considered as an element of pre-performance routine. Conclusions: The study found that as the level of pre-performance anxiety increased, the level of rituals also increased.



Author ORCID Identifier

Joanna Basiaga-Pasternak https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6875-4875