Background: The aim of the study was to determine the level and changes in the level of temporal-spatial orientation in first-grade pupils from elementary schools who participated in Physical Education classes integrated with subject-related contents that used Edubal educational balls. Material/Methods: Research material comprised first-grade pupils from two classes in an elementary school in Wroclaw, Poland. The study was carried out during the second term of the 2013/2014 school year. Fifty-four pupils (26 girls and 18 boys) were diagnosed in total. The study employed the method of a pedagogical experiment that used the parallel groups technique (experimental class and control class). Results: In the first examination, pupils from the control group obtained better results compared to pupils from the experimental group (p=0.04). In the second examination, pupils from the experimental class obtained better results compared to those from the control group. However, the difference between the results obtained in both groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.87). Conclusions: The results obtained in the study lead to a conclusion that it is justified to carry out further studies in order to evaluate the level and possible changes in temporal-spatial orientation in first-grade pupils from elementary school who participate in Physical Education classes that use Edubal educational balls and to search for the relationships between the pupils’ temporal-spatial orientation and school performance.



Author ORCID Identifier

Sara Wawrzyniak https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3040-6637